How Preclinical Research Contributes to Clinical Research and Development: the Need for Improved Inclusion of Sex as a Biological Variable by Academic Researchers
Learn the basics of the drug development process and how and when sex as a biological variable should be considered during it.
Human and Preclinical Evidence of Sex-related Differences in Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Toxicology
Learn about some of the available evidence of sex-based differences in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicology in both humans and animals.
The Importance of Considering Sex Differences in Pharmacology when Designing Preclinical Studies
Learn about how sex as a biological variable may influence study design related to dose selection, timing and target organ engagement.
The Need for Improved Animal Models to Study Sex Differences during Drug Development
Learn about how the selection and validation of more predictive animal models is necessary for answering important drug development questions.
Sex Differences in the Use of Anesthetics and Analgesics for Survival Surgery
Learn about evidence for sex-based differences in the interaction between the brain and various anesthetic agents.